Tuesday, September 30, 2008

Native American Warriors: Manuelito

Manuelito was one of the war chiefs of the Navajo people before, during and after what is now known as the Long Walk Period. He was born to the Bit'ahni Clan, near the Bear's Ears in southeastern Utah in about 1818. His name means “Little Manuel,” in Spanish but he had many other Navajo names too. The Navajo once lived in much of Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado. They had clan leaders instead of "head chiefs".

By the 1850s, leaders including Manuelito, had become wealthy through livestock, agriculture, and raids on Mexican and neighboring Indian tribes. But as the western territories became part of the U. S. after the Mexican War, this all changed. Mexicans automatically became American citizens while Navajos did not. When the Mexican-Americans raided Navajo homes, kidnapping women and children to be sold as slaves, the U.S. Army usually did nothing. When Navajos fought back, the government punished them. Manuelito’s own home, crops and livestock were destroyed by soldiers in a “punishment raid” in 1859.

In 1860, he attacked Fort Defiance, Arizona, a military outpost commanded by Colonel Edward R.S. Canby. By then, the Civil War had started, and the Army needed soldiers to fight east of the Mississippi River. So Canby and Manuelito made peace, but with no Army to keep peace, fighting continued.

By 1863, the situation was so bad General James Carleton was sent from California with orders to remove all the Indians to a new reservation called Bosque Redondo, at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, a dry wasteland. Navajos were given a short time to surrender. When they did not, Carleton sent Kit Carson and his troops to destroy crops, livestock, and homes. By October 1863, the first Navajos began making the “Long Walk” from their homelands 350 miles southeast to Fort Sumner. They were given plenty of food and good treatment so others would follow, and when they did not, Carson raided the Canyon de Chelly, a Navajo heartland.

Navajo began to surrender by the thousands in March 1864 and Manuelito and his warriors became the last hold-outs. In February 1865 Carleton sent six Navajo headmen to plead with him to surrender for the sake of his starving people. He still refused. Finally, in September, Manuelito and 23 of his warriors surrendered, their emaciated bodies clad only in rags.

In 1868, after hundreds died of disease and starvation, a new treaty was signed granting the Navajo a reservation back in their original land, along with livestock and food supplies. Manuelito served as head chief from 1870 to 1884. In 1876 he traveled to Washington where he met with President U.S. Grant. He died from measles complicated by pneumonia in 1894 at the age of 76, one of the most respected figures in Navajo history. More about this hero at: www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianchiefs/manuelito_navajo_war_chief.htm

Research info gathered at: http://www.wikipedia.org/

Now, here's one of my poems that can ride bareback:

The Secret To A Great Lip-Sync...

or in anticipation ofa treat home hurries
the steel-toe shoes to potlick a ride
on your tongue I beg. Or truth
be told, the delights of being
safely tucked in the roof
of your mouth and
topple up the
stairs to
our bedroom.
A candle flickers
and the gull plays
voyeur on the window
ledge as the moon slips in &
out of clouds once it's stripped down
to its underwear.

Poem first published at: http://venerealkittens.blogspot.com/
Visit my ezine at: http://www.concelebratory.blogspot.com/
music blog: http://www.medleymakersant.blogspot.com/
and tutoring blog: http://www.miceintheclassroom.blogspot.com/
Poem Copyright 2008 by Maurice Oliver. All Rights Reserved.


Anonymous said...

With havin so much written content do you ever run into any issues
of plagorism or copyright infringement? My
blog has a lot of unique content I've either authored myself or outsourced but it seems a lot of it is popping it up all over the internet without my agreement. Do you know any methods to help reduce content from being ripped off? I'd definitely appreciate it.

Also visit my weblog; satellite cardsharing kings

oakleyses said...

nike free, oakley sunglasses, polo outlet, tory burch outlet, louboutin pas cher, kate spade outlet, longchamp outlet, sac longchamp pas cher, jordan pas cher, replica handbags, nike roshe, nike air max, cheap oakley sunglasses, ray ban sunglasses, gucci handbags, christian louboutin outlet, prada handbags, kate spade, longchamp outlet, replica watches, ray ban sunglasses, polo ralph lauren outlet online, nike air max, nike free run, burberry pas cher, chanel handbags, michael kors pas cher, longchamp outlet, oakley sunglasses, air max, coach outlet, oakley sunglasses, christian louboutin, longchamp pas cher, louis vuitton outlet, ray ban sunglasses, replica watches, prada outlet, uggs on sale, ugg boots, polo ralph lauren, coach outlet store online, tiffany and co, christian louboutin uk, ugg boots, nike outlet, jordan shoes, tiffany jewelry, christian louboutin shoes

oakleyses said...

ray ban uk, true religion jeans, michael kors outlet online, nike tn, converse pas cher, coach purses, true religion outlet, nike huaraches, polo lacoste, mulberry uk, ralph lauren uk, sac hermes, nike air max, nike air max uk, hollister pas cher, nike air force, michael kors, michael kors outlet online, nike air max uk, nike trainers uk, uggs outlet, longchamp uk, burberry outlet, nike roshe run uk, guess pas cher, oakley pas cher, michael kors outlet online, ray ban pas cher, michael kors outlet, michael kors, nike blazer pas cher, true religion outlet, new balance, hogan outlet, burberry handbags, uggs outlet, hollister, timberland pas cher, sac vanessa bruno, vans pas cher, true religion outlet, michael kors outlet online, north face, michael kors outlet, lululemon canada, hollister uk, north face uk, abercrombie and fitch uk, michael kors outlet

oakleyses said...

soccer jerseys, converse outlet, north face outlet, celine handbags, mont blanc pens, toms shoes, wedding dresses, bottega veneta, beats by dre, ghd hair, vans, gucci, hollister clothing, mcm handbags, ralph lauren, instyler, north face outlet, babyliss, jimmy choo outlet, valentino shoes, abercrombie and fitch, nike air max, vans outlet, supra shoes, karen millen uk, converse, chi flat iron, reebok outlet, herve leger, juicy couture outlet, p90x workout, timberland boots, montre pas cher, nike air max, insanity workout, hollister, ray ban, oakley, baseball bats, hermes belt, lancel, nike roshe run, mac cosmetics, asics running shoes, louboutin, juicy couture outlet, new balance shoes, ferragamo shoes, nfl jerseys, soccer shoes

oakleyses said...

louis vuitton, wedding dresses, links of london, swarovski, hollister, pandora uk, moncler, doudoune moncler, coach outlet, moncler outlet, canada goose outlet, louis vuitton, canada goose, canada goose, pandora charms, ugg pas cher, canada goose outlet, moncler, replica watches, pandora jewelry, ugg,uggs,uggs canada, pandora jewelry, moncler, moncler uk, marc jacobs, canada goose outlet, moncler, louis vuitton, thomas sabo, louis vuitton, ugg, canada goose jackets, ugg,ugg australia,ugg italia, swarovski crystal, louis vuitton, canada goose, canada goose uk, ugg uk, moncler outlet